great mosque of kairouan history

It has served as a model for others, such as the Zaytuna Mosque located in Tunis. A brief discussion of the Great Mosque at Kairouan. Around 690, shortly after its construction, the mosque was destroyed during the occupation of Kairouan by the Berbers, originally conducted by Kusaila. Located in the north-east of the medina of Kairouan, the mosque is in the intramural district of Houmat al-Jami (literally "area of the Great Mosque"). The latter, which its hemispherical cap is cut by 24 concave grooves radiating around the top,[75] is based on ridged horns shaped shell and a drum pierced by eight circular windows which are inserted between sixteen niches grouped by two. Dome of the Rock. Now, however, it has white and yellow marble. This mosque was founded around the year 670 A.D.; it is the first mosque in North Africa and the most famous one. The first mosque constructed on this site in Kairouan, Tunisia was commissioned by Uqba Ibn Nafi in 670. Influencing later mosques in the region, the Great Mosque of Kairouan is the oldest mosque in the first town of Islam in the West. just create an account. credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. page 118, Mahmud Abd al-Mawla, The rainwater collector or impluvium, probably the work of the Muradid Bey Mohamed Bey al-Mouradi (1686–1696), is an ingenious system that ensures the capture (with the slightly sloping surface of the courtyard) then filtering stormwater at a central basin furnished with horseshoe arches sculpted in white marble. It was destroyed and rebuilt in 703 by Hassan Ibn Numan. By the founder of Kairouan it was built, he was the Sidi Oqba, for that as the Sidi Oqba Mosque is also known the mosque. [60], The hypostyle hall is divided into 17 aisles of eight bays, the central nave is wider, as well as the bay along the wall of the qibla. The Great Mosque of Kairouan. | {{course.flashcardSetCount}} page 404, Henri Saladin, Tunis et Kairouan, It was under his auspices that the construction of the minaret began. [72] The shafts of the columns are carved in marble of different colors and different backgrounds. flashcard set{{course.flashcardSetCoun > 1 ? © copyright 2003-2020 Study.com. The sanctuary is 137 by 37 meters and there are 17 naves and 8 bays. Paris, 1908, It was rebuilt by the Ghassanid general Hasan ibn al-Nu'manin … Centre italien d’études du haut Moyen Âge, Lucien Golvin, « Le mihrab de Kairouan Â», Kunst des Orients, vol. [49], The door giving access to the minaret is framed by a lintel and jambs made of recycled carved friezes of antique origin. The Great Mosque of Kairouan, also called the Mosque of Uqba, is one of the most important mosques in Tunisia, it is spread over a surface area of 9,000 square meters and it is one of the oldest places of worship in the … The bay along the qibla wall and main longitudinal axis form a T-formation, which was an arrangement typical of the region. Media in category "Great Mosque of Kairouan" The following 8 files are in this category, out of 8 total. Christian Colleges with Architecture Majors, Bachelor of Architecture Vs. BS in Architecture: How to Choose. [39] Despite its construction at the end of the thirteenth century, Bab Lalla Rihana blends well with all of the building mainly dating from the ninth century. [58] From the outside, the dome of the mihrab is based on an octagonal drum with slightly concave sides, raised on a square base, decorated on each of its three southern, Easter and western faces with five flat-bottomed niches surmounted by five semi-circular arches,[24][58] the niche in the middle is cut by a lobed oculus enrolled in a circular frame. Jewel of the art of woodwork produced during the reign of the Zirid prince Al-Mu'izz ibn Badis and dated from the first half of the eleventh century, it is considered the oldest still in place in the Islamic world. The Great Mosque of Kairouan This is the oldest and most important Islamic building in North Africa and was originally built by Oqba ibn Nafi, the Arab commander who founded Kairouan in AD 672. "Soha Gaafar et Marwa Mourad, « La Grande Mosquée de Kairouan, un maillon clé dans l'histoire de l'architecture Â», Lucien Golvin, « Quelques réflexions sur la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan à la période des Aghlabides Â», pp. Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. The only component that might have been saved was the mi… The current mosque was built by Emir Abou Ibrahim Ahmad in 863. Their use probably dates to the work done under the Umayyad governor Bishr ibn Safwan in about 725 AD, and they have been reused at the base of the tower. Around 690, shortly after its construction, the mosque was destroyed during the occupation of Kairouan by the Berbers, originally conducted by Kusaila. [42] The great central arch of the south portico, is flanked on each side by six rhythmically arranged horseshoe arches, which fall on twin columns backed by pillars. As such, it assumed the important function of representing a cosmopolitan and urbane Kairouan, one of the first cities organized under Muslim rule in North Africa. first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}} lessons For the Love of Physics - Walter Lewin - May 16, 2011 - Duration: 1:01:26. [60] Although the shafts are of varying heights, the columns are ingeniously arranged to support fallen arches harmoniously. This porch of seven metres high is topped with a square base upon which rests a semi-spherical ribbed dome; the latter is ribbed with sharp-edged ribs. These are the oldest fund of Maliki legal literature to have survived.[87]. Oxford, 1977, page 33. Discover the architectural wonder and historical significance of this place of worship. The oldest boards date back to the Aghlabid period (ninth century) and are decorated with scrolls and rosettes on a red background consists of squares with concave sides in which are inscribed four-petaled flowers in green and blue, and those performed by the Zirid dynasty (eleventh century) are characterised by inscriptions in black kufic writing with gold rim and the uprights of the letters end with lobed florets, all on a brown background adorned with simple floral patterns. The Islamic governors of Tunisia built the Great Mosque at Kairouan in the 800s AD, in the time of the Abbasid Empire. Get access risk-free for 30 days, Mohamed Kerrou, « Quartiers et faubourgs de la médina de Kairouan. Its minaret is three stories tall and is located slightly off center on the northern side. It was built in stages over the course of almost two centuries. [61] They cross with right angle in front of the mihrab, this device, named "T shape", which is also found in two Iraqi mosques in Samarra (around 847) has been adopted in many North African and Andalusian mosques where it became a feature. [60] The wooden rods, which usually sink to the base of the transom, connect the columns together and maintain the spacing of the arches, thus enhancing the stability of all structures which support the ceiling of the prayer hall.[74]. From the outside, the Great Mosque of Kairouan is a fortress-like building with its 1.90 metres thick massive ocher walls, a composite of well-worked stones with intervening courses of rubble stone and baked bricks. Great Mosque of Samarra: Architecture & Facts, Quiz & Worksheet - Kairouan Mosque in Tunisia, Over 83,000 lessons in all major subjects, {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}}, Umayyad Mosque: Architecture, History & Facts, Minaret: Definition, Design & Architecture, Biological and Biomedical [52][57], View of the second and third storeys of the minaret, Close view of one of the Roman stones (with Latin inscriptions) reused at the base of the minaret, Wall and windows of the south facade of the minaret, The Mosque has several domes, the largest being over the mihrab and the entrance to the prayer hall from the courtyard. [17] During this expansion, he pulled down the mosque and rebuilt it with the exception of the mihrab. In 1967, major restoration works, executed during five years and conducted under the direction of the National Institute of Archeology and Art, were achieved throughout the monument, and were ended with an official reopening of the mosque during the celebration of the Mawlid of 1972.[30]. 69–77. imaginable degree, area of [60], View of the gallery which precedes the prayer hall, One of the seventeen carved-wood doors of the prayer hall, Close view of the upper part of the main door of the prayer hall, View of the central nave of the prayer hall, View of two of the secondary naves of the prayer hall, View of the mihrab located in the middle of the qibla wall of the prayer hall, In the prayer hall, the 414 columns of marble, granite or porphyry[69] (among more than 500 columns in the whole mosque),[70] taken from ancient sites in the country such as Sbeitla, Carthage, Hadrumetum and Chemtou,[60] support the horseshoe arches. The crowns of light are marked by Byzantine influence to which the Kairouanese artisan brought the specificities of Islamic decorative repertoire (geometric and floral motifs). Stephen has master's degrees in both architecture and city planning and has taught architecture design studios. [67] The other doors of the prayer hall, some of which date from the time of the Hafsids,[68] are distinguished by their decoration which consists essentially of geometric patterns (hexagonal, octagonal, rectangular patterns, etc.). Over the next 30 years, several additions and partial reconstructions were made. [80] Above the marble cladding, the mihrab niche is crowned with a half dome-shaped vault made of manchineel bentwood. It is formed by an oven-shaped niche framed by two marble columns and topped by a painted wooden half-cupola. What is the Difference Between Blended Learning & Distance Learning? Trudy Ring, Robert M. Salkin and Sharon La Boda, « Kairouan (Tunisia) Â», Présentation de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan (ArchNet), Plafonds de la salle de prière de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan, Mihrab of the Great Mosque of Kairouan (Qantara), Minbar of the Great Mosque of Kairouan (Qantara), "Maqsura of the Great Mosque of Kairouan (Qantara)", Circular chandelier (Discover Islamic Art), Nurdin Laugu, « The Roles of Mosque Libraries through History Â», Al-Jami‘ah, vol. Among the Western travelers, poets and writers who visited Kairouan, some of them leave impressions and testimonies sometimes tinged with emotion or admiration on the mosque. [40][41] It is surrounded on all its four sides by a portico with double rows of arches, opened by slightly horseshoe arches supported by columns in various marbles, in granite or in porphyry, reused from Roman, Early Christian or Byzantine monuments particularly from Carthage. The Great Mosque of Kairouan has become one of the most prominent places of worship in the Muslim world due to its historical significance and architectural influence. [50] The greater part of the minaret dates from the time of the Aghlabid princes in the ninth century. You can test out of the Its most striking feature is the formal emphasis on the building’s T-like axis punctuated by two domes, one of which hovers over the earliest preserved ensemble of mihrab, minbar , … »[32], At the same time, the doctor and Anglican priest Thomas Shaw (1692–1751),[33] touring the Tunis Regency and passes through Kairouan in 1727, described the mosque as that: "which is considered the most beautiful and the most sacred of Berberian territories", evoking for example: "an almost unbelievable number of granite columns".[34]. It is one of the oldest places of worship in the Islamic world, and is a model for all later mosques in the Maghreb. Create an account to start this course today. A legend says they could not count them without going blind. The library window is marked by an elegant setting that has two columns flanking the opening, which is a horseshoe arch topped by six blind arches and crowned by a series of berms sawtooth.[86]. Today, it is located in the northern section of the structure and also once served the role of a watchtower but its principal function is that it was used as the location to call Muslims to prayer. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree. The Great Mosque was literally and figuratively at the center of Kairouan activity, growth, and prestige. [7] The fame of the Mosque of Uqba and of the other holy sites at Kairouan helped the city to develop and expand. This collection is a unique source for studying the history and evolution of calligraphy of medieval manuscripts in the Maghreb, covering the period from the ninth to the eleventh century. Most of the works on which rests the reputation of the mosque are still conserved in situ while a certain number of them have joined the collections of the Raqqada National Museum of Islamic Art; Raqqada is located about ten kilometres southwest of Kairouan. Although it has existed for more than eleven centuries, all panels, with the exception of nine, are originals and are in a good state of conservation, the fineness of the execution of the minbar makes it a great masterpiece of Islamic wood carving referring to Paul Sebag. Extensive works under the Aghlabids two centuries later (9th Cent.AD/CE) gave the mosque its present aspect. As you wander the grounds of the Great Mosque of Kairouan in Tunisia you are treading across over a millennia of history. Bachelor of Architecture Salary Info: What Do Graduates Earn? The building is composed of a courtyard and prayer hall to the southeast. It is longer (127.60 metres) on the east side than the west (125.20 metres), and shorter on the north side (72.70 metres) than the south (78 metres). [8] Its role at the time can be compared to that of the University of Paris in the Middle Ages. This is the least expensive place to buy … In 836, Emir Ziyadat Allah I reconstructed the mosque once more:[21] this is when the building acquired, at least in its entirety, its current appearance. Considered one of the most im­portant Islamic monuments in the Maghreb, the great mosque is an architectural masterpiece that was founded by Uqba ibn Nafi cover­ing a perimeter of 405 metres. Carefully executed in relief, it represents one of the most beautiful epigraphic bands of Islamic art. Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Are each fixed to the seventh century epigraphic bands of Islamic art in 670 two years of college and thousands! 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