Moreover, the generalized nature of disability labels help professionals to communicate with one another about groups of children who have similar specialized needs and also helps them choose certain methods to provide education to those children. Criticisms of the Labeling Perspective Many criticisms have been leveled against the labeling perspective by criminologists who looked at labeling as an attack on prior theoretical thought. They constitute what Everett Hughes calls 'master statuses'. ... two of the best known explanations of deviance offered by _____ are differential association theory and labeling theory. Thomas, Charles Horton Cooley, and Herbert Blumer, among others. WC ; ... Labelling Theory 2. 4 For an excellent summary of the criticisms leveled against labeling theory see … Rosenthal and Jacobson found if a student was given a positive label they acted that label out and visa versa. The impact of reputation: Deviant labels such as thief, queer or junkie are more powerful than other labels. Individuals can rationalize their ‘deviant’ behaviour. Social learning theory is commonly used by sociologists to explain deviance and crime. Labels help groups of individuals who have disabilities in common form a group identity. Secondary deviance implies a long causal chain of events, including negative labels, objective and perceived opportunities, and deviant self-images. This spoiled identity is what we term stigma. Humanitarianism - abhorrence of anything that enslaves. PROB. The following points seem essential to the labelling approach: Social rules are essentially political products - they reflect the power of groups to have laws enforced, or not. They over-simplify the process of labelling, and particularly they minimise the role of the deviant in the defining process. The central idea is that societal reaction can actually cause deviant behaviour. Parents, teachers, and other school professionals can work diligently to see each child as an individual with unique needs, strengths, and qualities. How Involved Should Parents Be When It Comes To Their Child's IEP? Positive self-esteem is something that grows from the experience of meeting and conquering challenges; it cannot easily develop when expectations of a child are low. He identified the following values: These values can be 'pushed' by moral entrepreneurs. Within IDEA, disability labels identify formal definitions that are used to determine eligibility. One, which the au- It doesn't explain why people are deviant before labeling occurs. There … 'The deviant returns home with no proper licence to resume a normal life in the community. For one thing, present criticism crudely reject the entire approach, and although labeling possesses a number of misleading claims-, many of which will be presented in a later part of this essay, it also possesses some insightful and frequently neglected directions for deviancy studies. Often, learning that a child's impairment isn't contagious, or learning that a child isn't purposefully trying to be different from others, can be very calming for other children. Thirdly, labelling can lead to stigmatisation. This is shown in Jock Young's study, 'The Drugtakers'. Disability labels are a necessary part of the special education process, at least with regard to how it is conducted in the United States. The degree of choice and consciousness that actors have is denied them. Since an addict cannot always get drugs legally, they must get them illegally and thus there may be a need to resort to deceit and crime to support the habit. Social learning theory is a theory that attempts to explain socialization and its effect on the development of the self. The deviant might find it easier to come to terms with the label than to fight it. There have been criticisms that the terms in labelling theory lack precision, and that there is no real account taken of the central social processes, such as how every day behaviour actually needs to have a societal reaction. First, is the view that people tend to behave the way they are labelled. Handling Disputes: Due Process and Mediation, IEP Disagreement Options and Annual Renewals. This process is also noted by Rosenhan (Being Sane in Insane Places). Howard Becker (1963): his key statement about labelling is: “Deviancy is not a quality of the act a person commits, but rather a consequence of the application by others of rules and sanctions to an ‘offender’. The labeling theory has been critiqued at a very critical level. Through a series of interactions, pressure is put on the deviant to accept a label. Primary deviance is deviance before it is publicly labelled; it has a number of possible causes and is not worth investigating since samples are biased and since it has no impact on the individual, it does not influence status or activities. The above ideas can be illustrated via the example of drug addiction. The deviant is ascribed a negative identity which in many cases is irreversible. Labeling theory, in criminology, a theory stemming from a sociological perspective known as ‘symbolic interactionism,’ a school of thought based on the ideas of George Herbert Mead, John Dewey, W.I. There is an very strong relationship between family wealth and educational success, as well as family wealth and occupational outcomes, Becky Francis, 2016. Despite the refreshing approach of labelling theory, there are a number of serious criticisms: The society/culture in which an act occurs -. 3 They also assert that it's not entirely certain whether labeling increases deviancy. The Mass Media play an important role in developing labels by which social problems are publicly recognised. Lemert begins by distinguishing between 'primary' and 'secondary' deviance. One concern over disability labeling is the potential for such labels to cause children to be singled out and even ridiculed. In society, children are surrounded by many influential models, such as parents within the family, characters on children’s TV, friends within their peer group and teachers at school. They tend to concentrate on middle level agencies of social control such as the police and the courts. The label can attach to the whole identity, not simply the particular deviant act. The group identity also allows parents, families, and other groups which support youth with disabilities to come together to provide each other support and to advocate for their children. If labelling is so straightforward, then it should be more uniform in its effects. In the case of the Marijuana Tax act the Bureau of Narcotics was the driving force. Hence it is claimed, too much emphasis is placed on the impact of social reaction and thus on the deviants present as opposed to their past. The media then launches a campaign against these groups making the public, police and the groups themselves more aware of their existence and hence creating a demand for 'something to be done'. Behind this utilitarianism was a strong laissez-faire assumption that the best results would come from the least intervention. Labelling Perspective is regarded as one of the main theories developed by the interactionists, with Howard Becker being instrumental in its formation (Giddens and Sutton, 2013). For example a teacher dealing with the student labelled a 'failure' will not be surprised when the student fails. Such rule-breaking need have no further consequences for the person involved. Some researchers believe people of lower social status are more likely to be labelled deviant. Parents, in their role as advocates for their children, play a particularly important role in helping to insure that negative expectations do not come to dominate a child's educational planning. Labeling Theory and Symbolic Interaction Theory C. Becker’s Labeling Theory Tannenbaum, Lemert, and Kitsuse had discussed important concepts in labeling and stigmatization, but the labeling approach was more systematically refined with the work of Becker (1963) on societal “outsiders.” Once labelled a deviant it can become increasingly difficult to interact with others in society. 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